More About LPI

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About the Inventory

LPI 360 is a comprehensive leadership development tool created by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner as part of The Leadership Challenge suite of programs, products, and services proven to cultivate and liberate the leadership potential in every person, at every level in any organization. This premier 360-degree leadership development tool includes: the LPI Self (completed by the Leader) and the LPI Observer (completed by others chosen by the Leader). LPI SELF: a 30-item assessment instrument that provides a way for individual Leaders to measure the frequency of their own specific leadership behaviors on a 10-point frequency scale.  

All LPI Online assessments are easily created, tracked, and managed. Automated scoring means feedback reports are produced immediately and are accessible online. LPI Online's individual and group reports examine quantifiable leadership skills, allowing leaders to understand their strengths and weaknesses without the confusion of complicated report analyses. Items in the Assessment: 30 Time:10-15 minutes. Preview the Assessment

How Was LPI Verified and Tested?

The Leadership Practices Inventory: Theory and Evidence Behind the Five Practices of Exemplary Leaders There is considerable empirical support for the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership framework. Here we provide an overview of the development and validation of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). Comparisons of LPI scores along a number of critical dimensions are summarized, as well as brief insights into findings by other researchers utilizing this leadership framework and instrument. Readers and scholars interested in more academic discussions of the LPI can find several more technical reports as well as other research descriptions on our partner website www.theleadershipchallenge.com

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What You Will Learn from the LPI: Leadership Practices Inventory

After the assessment comes understanding—and action. LPI Online delivers in-depth reports that enable the organization to gain insight into entire groups of leaders via the Group Summary report, or compare results over multiple assessments to gauge development. The LPI and Five Practices can be mapped to any mission or vision statement. It has been shown to adapt to any organization's leadership development program View a Sample Report.

The Leadership Practices Inventory Model The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) was developed through a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research methods and studies. In-depth interviews and written case studies from personal-best leadership experiences generated the conceptual framework, which consists of The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership®: 

  • Model the Way
  • Inspire a Shared Vision
  • Challenge the Process
  • Enable Others to Act
  • Encourage the Heart


The actions that make up these practices were translated into behavioral statements. Following several iterative psychometric processes, the assessments were created and administered to managers and non-managers across a variety of organizations, disciplines, and demographic backgrounds. A version of the LPI (Student LPI) also has been developed for specific use with high school and college students.   If you would like to learn more about the psychometric properties of the LPI, please visit the research section of www.leadershipchallenge.com.